|| ॐ अखण्डमण्डलाकारं व्याप्तं येन चराचरम्, तत्पदं दर्शितं येन तस्मै श्रीगुरवे नमः ||
Lord, he, whose, form is one whole, who is indivisible and present everywhere; pervades both Moving (Living) & Non-moving (Non-living) manifestations. Guru, he who, has seen the feet of such Lord (he who has experienced Oneness with the Ultimate), Salutations O blessed One!
Guru is a simple word apparently, but in fact, it is a “Mantra”. This is the concept of Hinduism, rather Hindu Culture. The purpose of writing this article is not to dwell upon what is ‘Hindu’ or ‘Hinduism’. Therefore, I do not intend to write about that aspect. I am also trying to find out and share the idea of “Guru”, as understood by Western Philosophy.
In Indian culture, there are lot of deities. Irrespective of this, also at one place, it is said, “आकाशात पतीतम तोयम, यथा गछ्ती सागरम | सर्व देव नमस्कार:, केशवं प्रती गछ्ती ||१||” Even if you worship any deity, ultimately it reaches Keshav, that is Vishnu, a saviour of universe. In Hindu religion, there are three prime deities, which are called “Trimurty (Trinity)”, Brahma -The Creator, Vishnu- The Saviour and Mahesh – The Carrier to Infinity. There are many Sanskrit writings, including Bhagwat Geeta, where directly or indirectly, ‘Guru’ is referred to and volumes can be further written to expound the essence of that. I shall be restricting myself here in dealing with only three aspects, namely, What is Guru, What he does or can do and Why Guru is important in our lives.
In common parlance, people understand ‘Guru’ as somebody, who can give you whatever you want, easily without any efforts, who can teach you something about your profession or vocation, may be science, art, performing art like dance, vocal music, instrumental, medical science, aviation engineering, aeronautical engineering, pharmacology, astrology, statistics, literature, business skills and so on. Such Gurus are living human beings, Men, or Women. Many a times, few of such gurus create their own clan and propagators, who sell pictures, images, phots or lockets, pendants and so on, and have ashrams also. But that is not the subject of this article at all. I shall not be spending my time on such issues nor interested in debating or commenting whether it is right or wrong. I wish to devote more to core of this article, “Guru Tattva”. I am writing this article with specific reference to Aashadh Poornima (आषाढ पौर्णिमा), which falls on 5th July 2020, Sunday. It is called as Vyas Purnima or Guru Purnima. That is the importance of choosing this occasion.
In all Shastras (Scriptures), The Guru is described to be as good as God, but the Guru never says, “I am God”. The shishya’s duty is to offer respect to the Guru, just as he offers respect to God, but the Guru never thinks ‘My disciples are offering me the same respect they offer to God; hence, I have become God’. The shishya must tell his Guru, “I was born in the darkest of ignorance my Guru, My Spiritual Master! Open my eyes with the torch of knowledge you are bearing in yourself, I offer my respectful loyalty unto you.” All of us are in darkness in the material world, which is a world of ‘Tamas’. Tamas or Timira means “darkness”. There is another world, a spiritual world, which is much beyond the darkness. It is described by Lord Shrikrishna, in Bhagwat Geeta in Chapter-15, Shloka-6, as under”
“न तद्भासयते सूर्यो न शशांको न पावक: | यद्ग्त्वा न निवर्त्ं रनन्ते तद्धामं परमं मम ||६||
That dwelling of Mine is not illuminated by the Sun or the Moon, nor by electricity. One who reaches it, never returns to the physical world. Therefore, The Guru is expected to take his disciples from darkness to light.
Guru is nothing different than accomplished inner self or emancipated self. One who has high respect and deep faith in Guru, does not require to do anything else. Param Vandaniya Jagat Guru Shrikrishna told to Arjuna in Bhagwat Geeta, Chapter-9, Shloka-22, “अनन्या श्चिंतयन्तोमां, ए जना: पर्युपासते, तेषां नित्याभी युक्तामां, योग: क्षेमं वहाम्ययम |” Hey Arjun, you just surrender to me with full faith and loyalty and then leave it to me. I will take care of everything for you. The complete and full devotion is expected by an individual, who accepts somebody as his /her Guru.
The first alphabet of the word “Guru”, that is ‘Gu’ means darkness of ignorance and second alphabet is ‘Ru’, which means Light of Knowledge. So, Guru is one who removes the darkness of ignorance by the Light of Knowledge, from the life of his disciple. ‘Gu’ also denotes the worldly mortal things; whereas, the ‘Ru’ represents ‘Brahma’, whose prime function is to dispel the illusions and delusions. There is nothing in the world, which is permanent, omnipresent, and superior than Guru, and therefore, one must offer an appropriate seat, bed, clothes, ornaments, vehicles etc. to Guru, which will make him happy and comfortable. One must serve his Guru by words, mind, behaviour always and bow down (Sashtang Namaskar) before him. It is believed that the feet of Guru (Charan Kamal) always salvage his disciple from sorrow, sadness, happiness, pleasures, worries, insults, derogation, emergencies, difficulties, and anxieties. Guru help his disciple to experience (Anubhuti) formless essence, which is beyond the description and existence in any form.
Guru enables his disciples to destroy the infinite ignorance and hence, he should be respected and worshipped. Guru is epoch-maker and is all the time available. In today’s current dialect, Guru is ATM; yes, you read correctly, ATM. Guru is All Time and Any Time Mindful. He is self-illuminated and not dependent upon anybody. He is beyond body, mind, and consciousness and therefore, he is most pious, perpetually enlightened, and never gets destroyed. It is believed that even by remembering Guru intensely, man can obtain the knowledge, because the Guru is receivable even only by prayers. He is full of astronomical energy, permanent, calm, has extremely miniature form than sky, self-illuminated, beyond any sound, point or progression.
Eklavya, a disciple of Great Dronachyarya. He was refused by Dronachyarya to accept as his disciple, because he wanted Arjun to become the best archer in the whole world. Eklvay was not disappointed by it and respected his Guru. He was determined and accepted Dronachyarya as his Guru. So, he made a statue of Dronachyarya and put complete and full faith in that statue as his real Guru Dronachyarya. It was no wonder that although he learnt on his own assuming that that statue of Dronachyarya, he achieved that skill at par with Arjuna. He became, in fact, better than Arjun. It demonstrates that individual’s devotion can compel the Guru to let the knowledge flow to disciple. “तस्मात स्मरण मात्रेण, अज्ञानी ज्ञानवान भवेत|”, only by remembering You, Oh Guru, I learnt this art and skill of archery. Eekalvya, understood very well that it is not human body or form only who can be a Guru, fully enthralled, gravitated, devoted to Guru Taatwa can pull the desired what is to be learnt form Guru.
The Guru element is supreme. Nothing is more superior than him. Nothing is better than the service of Guru. There is no other austere spiritual practice than intense devotion to Guru. The foundation of meditation is again Guru. The origin of worship is Guru. All mantras originate form Guru. Guru can only help to emancipate a human being. That is why he is also called as Sadguru. He is here from the beginning. He is the starting point of everything in the world, but Guru has no beginning. He is autonomous, autonomous, and highest Godhood in the world. Guru is universe and he only have within himself Brahma, Vishnu, and Mahesh, the trinity. It should be always remembered that everybody has the element of God. Therefore, everybody should equally respect Guru. Devotion to Guru enables an individual to obtain Self-knowledge, along with the Self-realization. Almost all religious books describe Guru as constant, pure, unperceivable, formless, self-ignited and embodiment of eternal bliss.
A distinguished metaphors of Guru is described as one who, has attired in white clothes, bearing white sandal essence, adorned by white flowers, wearing white ornaments, full of happiness, having two eyes, and on whose left lap divine Adeeshakti is resting and who is smiling and is a source abundant blessings. He is happiness giver, enchanting, embodiment of knowledge, fully enlightened, chief of all sages, worthy of praise and a doctor, who can prescribe medicine for maladies of worldly lives. In Guru, all three stages of universe are ingrained, namely, Beginning, Life and Dissolution or Transference.
Guru exist in the wee hours every day. He is also a personification of contentment, who holds a thousand petals’ lotus of immense purest knowledge and who blesses and assures a complete infinite protection only by remembering him, to his ardent disciples.
In fact, Guru is an Element (Tatwa), which is most needed by a human being. Guru can only help his disciple realise ‘I am free form everything’ and this is the most desirable state of mind in the universe; for which sages and hermits devote their lives by doing most arduous Tapaas (Continuous Meditations with painful bodily postures, coupled with single minded Invocation of Supreme Om). A disciple is expected to walk on the path of devotional meditation taught by Guru, which will help him attain Chitta Shuddhi (Purification of Mind) and Manah Shuddhi (Purification of Conscience); by sacrificing all things perceivable and can be experienced by all sensory organs, rejection of illusions of life and undesirable dimensions of living. Every Guru preaches that knowledge is a pure soul, residing in everybody, not only human being, but all creatures in the universe. And that is what is required to be understood. Knowledge is Mind and probably therefore, in the most sacred Bhagwat Geeta, in Vibhuti Yoga, Chapter-10, Jagat Guru Shrikrishna says, “वेदानाम सामवेदोस्मि देवानामस्मि वासव:| इंद्रीयाणां मनश्चास्मि भूतानामस्मि चेतना ||२२|| In all organs of the human body, God resides in the mind and therefore, knowing mind is the real knowledge. To unite, merge and synchronise Mind and Soul is the only way of knowing the Real Self. And this is precisely Guru facilitates. People who do not know Shruti-Smriti or who have not studied Vedas can attain liberated state, simply by serving Guru; otherwise even if a person has studied Vedas still, he will remain only Sadhu by appearance. It is like a lighting one lamp by another. Guru invariably leads disciples to formless, existence less, and devoid of appearance. One can get knowledge about self and meaning of self by the grace of Guru. Guru is beyond the comprehension. Purpose of meditation is giving happiness. He who resides at the centre of the heart and is pure, transparent, most sacred, and pious is Guru. It is Guru, who causes the learning of disciple about that, which is not comprehensible by five sensory organs, which has no name or description and whose real nature is ‘Wordless’, inexplicable. It becomes possible for disciple by concentrating and focussing on Him, The Guru. Once disciple attains ‘Self Knowledge and meets the ‘Tatwa’ (Ultimate Elements or Energy), he loses his interest in everything, he prefers to remain alone and in isolation, selfless, and composed totally and no wonder, this is facilitated none other than Supreme Sadguru. He does not get bothered whether he gets less or more, benefits or not from that. This is also mentioned in all time Shrimad Bhagwat Geeta in Chapter-2, Shloka-38, “सुखदु:खे समे कृत्वा लाभालाभौ जयाजयौ | ततो युद्धस्य युज्यस्व नैवं पापमवाप्स्प्यसी ||३८|| Becoming most learned, knowing everything means, whose Chitta (Which is a part of Mind but has function to control Mind, Buddhi etc. Bhagwat Geeta-Chapter-3, Shlok-42 and to distinguish it more elaboration is in Vivek Chudamani: Shloka-93 & 94) has become stable and unmoved. Again in Bhagwat Geeta, in Chapter-12, Shloka-9, Jagat Guru Shrikrishna guides Arjun in these words, “अथ चित्तम समाधातुं न श्क्नोषी मयि स्थिरम| अभ्यासयोगेन ततो मामिछाप्तुम धनंजय ||९||” Actually, on decoding this, it reveals that Chitta, if unable to control your mind and focus on me; follow Bhakti Yoga and its governing principles; so that you could concentrate on me and attain me, reach me and get assimilate in me or dissolve in me.
Colours affects the human mind and therefore, one should use a white seat (Asana). White colour enhances the effectiveness of pure mind. White colour expels the revolting and annoying thoughts of the mind. Guru understands the mind and purpose of disciples and accordingly, guide him appropriately, at the different stages on the journey of attainment, Kundalini Awakening and Emancipation.
Guru is always emancipated and hence, one who, makes all out efforts with ultimate devotion, shall undoubtedly get emancipated. Such emancipated disciple becomes the symbol of highest learning. Only centre of ultimate faith is Guru. Supreme Tapa (Arduous Devotional Effort) is Guru. There is nothing greater and supreme than The Guru. There is no element in the universe greater than The Guru. In ‘Guru Geeta’, Lord Shiva tells Maha Devi Parvati, “All mediations and Tapaas, Jap and Chanting can fructify, only by making The Guru happy and by nothing else.”
The Guru is not a personification or embodiment in human form, it is the ‘State of Mind’ and that is the highest place of salvation. All sacred places in the world can be found in The Guru. The Guru creates a distinct existential reality in his disciple, which is aptly described by Aadi Shankaracharya in Nirvana Shatakm,
“मनोबुद्ध्याहंकार चित्तानी नाहं, न च श्रोत्रजिव्हे न च घ्राणनेत्रे | न च व्योम भूमिर्न तेजो न वायु: चिदानन्दरूप: शिवोsहम शिवोsहम ||१||”
A spiritual guide, who helps others to move from one stage of their lives to another stage can be called as a “Guru”. Guru is, in fact, a Supreme Preacher. He initiates his disciple. The Guru appears to introduce his disciples to new experiences, to higher levels of spiritual understanding, to greater truths. The Guru preaches that freedom comes with accepting one’s imperfect, finite human situation. Guru may appear as a magic healer, a spiritual guide, a teacher, a sage, or a prophet. All these manifestations have one thing in common, and that each chooses to act as facilitator for positive change, for growth, for personal development. Every Sadguru attempts to aid those, who are suffering from evil, illness, ignorance. Only by facing his fears, at times with the help of the guru, can he become what he is and realize what he might. It is not enough that a Guru be a gifted magician. Guru’s divine gifts find meaning only if, they are used in the service of offering an opportunity to another. He may be a prophet, a shaman, a magical sorcerer, or even a leader of hunting expeditions. Followers are convinced that Guru possesses qualities far beyond those of other men, qualities that in the past were valued as being supernatural. It is, indeed, the Guru’s own freedom that inspires others to be free and find the right path themselves, without depending upon The GuruBhagwan Gautam Buddha wandered a lot and sat below the Bodhi Vruiksha at Buddha Gaya and got his salvation. He believed that no knowledge comes from outside. Knowledge is internal reality. It is state of mind attained after the vigorously churning the individual experiences, decoding them, analysing them, accepting them, and retaining by internalising the ultimate learnt truth. Guru is no longer expecting to be unafraid or certain or perfect, he gives himself over to being just as he is. Guru accepts his fear, lives with his uncertainty, finds his imperfection sufficient. The Guru is always committed to facilitate to ensure that there is no difference between them, except as the follower maintains the imbalance to avoid the awful responsibility of being equal to everyone else. To maintain his own freedom, the Guru must try to free the disciple from himself, detach himself from his disciple. Each type of guru can only be effective for a time within a given setting. The meanings that the Guru has brought to his followers may be diluted by empty ritualistic imitation. To be a Guru is to have grace of manner, powerful personal presence, a spirit of inner freedom, and an inspirational creative imagination.
Sikhism is a sub-sect of Hinduism. Guru Nanak is presumed as a Founder of Sikhism, and hence First Guru. There are ten gurus in its tradition, the Guru Gobind Singh being the tenth and last Guru, who had broken the chain and lineage of being Guru. Guru Gobind Singh while handing over the tradition of Sikh religion put the Granth Saheb, in place of human being and advised that thenceforth, Granths Saaheb with be only Guru. The Granth Saheb is respected highly by every Sikh. And therefore, the 11th and Last Guru of Sikh is Guru Granth Saheb.
The Guru is Holy Granthsaheb. It shows the way to every Bhakt or Devotee in its Mool Mantra, the basic postulate:
There is but one God.
His name is Truth.
He is the Creator.
He fears none nor does He hate anyone.
He is in the image of the Eternal.
He is beyond birth and death.
He is self-existent.
He can be attained by the Guru’s grace.
In Jainism, there were twenty-four Tirthankars, Rishabh Dev being the First Tirthankara and Mahavir Jain is 24th and last Tirthankara. After Mahavir Jain, the spiritual leaders are treated as Gurus.
The Guru has abundance, provided the disciple (Shishya) approaches with humility, as described in Shloka: 42 in Vivekchudamani, Chapter-II, Introduction:
“कथं तरेयम भवसिंधुमेतम, का वा गतिर्मे कतमोस्त्युपाय:| जाने न किंचितत्कृपायsव मां प्रभो संसारदु:खक्षतिमातनुश्व ||४२||
How shall I cross this ocean of Samsara surrounded with diverse insurmountable afflictions? What is to be my fate? What are the means? I know nothing. Of great One! Save me by your grace. Vouchsafe to me the liquidation of the sorrow of Samsara. Completely uproot the grief of Samsara that afflict me.
At another place, in Vivekchudamani, Shloka-38, shishya submits to the Guru his tivramumuksutva, intense longing for liberation impatient of any delay in his redemption. “दुर्वारसंसारदवाग्ंनितप्त्म डोधुयमानं दुरद्रुष्टवातै | भीतम प्रपन्न्मं परिपाहि म्रुत्त्यो: शरण्यन्यम यदह्म न जाने ||३८||
I am scorched by the inextinguishable forest-fire of smasara. I am deeply afflicted (shaken) by the winds of misfortune. I am overcome by intense fear. I fall at your feet. Save me from death. I have no one else in whom I can seek refuge.
And when, pupil or Shishya approach The Guru with this prayer, what Guru is expected to do,
“तथा वदन्तम शरणागतम स्व्म संसारदावानलतापत्प्त्म | निरीक्ष्यकारुण्यरसार्द्रद्रुष्ट्या दद्यादभीती सहसा महात्मा ||४३||
विद्वान स तस्मा उपसत्तिमीयुषे मुमुक्षवे साधु यथोक्तकारिणे | प्रशान्तचित्ताय शमन्विताय त त्वोपदेशम कृपयैव कुर्यात ||४४||”
Seeing the pupil (Sisya), burnt by the forest-fire of samsara and imploring the Guru to give him refuge, looking at him with eyes of compassion, the Great Guru should quickly assure him of relief. He should mercifully initiate Sisya into Truth, who approaches him in a proper manner, who longs for release, who duly practices the prescribed austerities, whose mind is peaceful and who has acquired the qualities of Sama (Equilibrium) etc.
On this, the compassionate Guru, wishing to quickly dispel the fear of the Shishya, who exclaims: How shall I cross the ocean? says:
“मा भैष्ट विद्व्मंस्तव नास्य्oपाय: संसारसिन्धोस्तर्णे स्त्युपाय: | येनैव याता यतयो स्य पारम तमेव मार्गम तव निर्दिशामी ||४५|| विवेकचुडामणी.
Fear not, O Learned One! There is no danger to you. There is a mean to cross the ocean of samsara. I shall show to you the way by which those who, have striven in the past have reached the other shore. By saying ‘Vidvan, do not fear’, freedom from fear has been vouchsafed immediately. By calling disciple ‘Vidvan’ learned one, The Guru means that, having acquired viveka etc, he has learnt that sorrow cannot be surmounted without the grace of The Guru. Therefore, it is indicated that having taken refuge in him, the sisya will learn what is to be learnt.
Aadi Shankaracharya advised in his treatise Vivekchudamani, further, as to what Sisya should do, in these words,
“तमाराध्य गुरुं भक्त्या प्रहय: प्रश्रयसेवने | प्रसन्न तमनुप्राप्य प्रुच्छेज्ज्ञातव्यमात्मन: ||३६||”
Worshipping that guru with devotion and approaching him, when he is pleased, with speech and action indicating humility, he should ask him urgently to tell him what must be learnt. Bhakti (Devotion) is attachment to those who deserve to be worshipped. It is a mental quality. Prostration of the body and joining of palms are expressive of this Bhakti. Prasraya is speaking with humility, sevana is prostrating in such a manner that all eight parts of the body touch the ground (Sashatang Namaskar). It also includes touching the Guru’s feet and executing his wills. The Guru is served by these ways. He is pleased by this straightforward service. (Sholka-36). Refining further, to those who yarn for spiritual knowledge, Sri Bhagatpada is please to explain with tenderness the manner of worshipping the Guru, by appropriate words, issuing out of true devotions.
“स्वामिन्ंनमस्ते नतलोकबन्धो, कारुण्यसिन्धो पतितम भवाब्धो |
मा मुद्धरात्मीयकटाक्षद्रुष्ट्या, ऋज्ण्यतिकाऋण्यसुधाभिवृष्ट्या ||३७||
My Master! I bow to you. You are friend to those who make loyalty to you. You are the ocean of compassion. I have fallen into the sea of samasara. Bathe me in the nectar of your straight and compassionate look and save me from the deeps of this ocean.
“स य एषोन्तर्हृदये आकाश: | तस्मिन्नयम पुरुषो मनोमय: | अमृतो हिरण्यमय: | अंतरेण तालुके | य एष स्तन इवावलंबते | सेन्द्रयोनि:| यत्रासौ केशान्तो विवर्तते | व्यपोहय शीर्षकपाले | भूरित्यग्नौ प्रतितिष्ठति | भुव इति वायौ ||१||
सुवरित्यादित्ये | मह इति ब्रम्हनि | वाक्पतिश्चक्षुष्पति: | श्रोत्रपतिविर्ज्ञानपति: | येतत्ततो भवति | आकाशशरिरम ब्रह्म | सत्त्यात्म प्राणारामम मन आनंदम | शांतिएसमृद्धममृतम | इति प्राचीनयोग्योपास्स्व ||२|| षष्ठोनुसवाक: ||
In the space that there is in the heart, is this Person who is realizable through knowledge, and who is immortal and bioluminescence. This thing that hangs down between the palates like a teat, that is the path of Brahman. Reaching where the hairs part, it passes out by separating the skulls. He gets sovereignty; he attains the lord in the mind; he becomes the ruler of speech, the ruler of eyes, the ruler of ears, the ruler of knowledge. Over and above all these he becomes Brahman, which is embodied in Akasha, which is identified with the gross and the subtle and has truth as its real nature, which reveals in the vital forces, under whose possession the mind is a source of bliss, which is enriched with peace and is immortal. Thus, O Pracinayoga, you worship. [Taittiriya Upanishad, Part-I, Chapter-VI, Shloka:1]
The Code of Conduct for Bhakt or Sisya is prescribed in Narad Bhakti Sutras, Chapter-15, Shloka: 62,
“न तत सिध्धौ लोकव्यवहारो हेय: किंतु फल त्यागस्त्तत साधनंच कार्यमेव ||६२| Till Bhakti is developed one must not neglect to observe social customs and ceremonies. One should surely perform them but only the fruits of all social activities are to be surrendered to the Lord.
In Dhammapada, The Tathagata, says,
“चिंदा सोट्म परक्कममा, कामे पणूदा ब्राह्मणा,
संखरांनाम ख्याम नत्व, अकटणणू सी ब्राह्मना,”
Exert yourself and cut off the stream (of craving)! Discard sense desires, O Holy Man! Having known the destruction of conditioned things, become a knower of the Uncreate (Nibbana), O Holy Man. (384) Further, it describes the characteristics of Sisya or The Holy Man, “यस्सा परम अपरम वा, परापरम ना विसाम्युतम, तम अहम बृमी ब्राहमनाम | He for whom there is neither this shore nor the other shore, nor yet both, he who is free of cares and is unfettered, him do I call a hoy man. (385)
The Sadguru, by his divine grace bestows or transmit the unlimited energy flow of consciousness. He can do it by different ways and means, by proximity or distantly. Swami Ramakrishna Paramhans did it by proximity; whereas there are examples, in puranas and scriptures that Gurus have done it from a distant place. However, in either way and by any method, Guru initiates the Sisya or Disciple into amazing experience of Kundalini Awakening. He may not tell Shishya that he is going to invoke to awaken the Kundalini, but in a subtle way, he does that only. The Sanskrit word “Chakra” literally means “Wheel”. These are the centres of vital energy in the human body. The Chakras cannot be observed by our gross sense, but must be experienced through subtle sense perception. Indian texts tell us that there are seven main chakras in the human body, while some scholars say that there are eleven chakras. Whatever the number may, be Chakras are responsible for physical, mental, and spiritual activities and evolution. The Chakras are in the spinal column, and each chakra influences a body function near its region of the spine. When Kundalini Shakti reaches the brain, the goal of kundalini meditation is achieved.
The subtle energy system in a human being is composed of nadis and chakras. It is like a far superior computer board. The life energy travels in our body through subtle energy tubes (nadis) and it energises every part of our body. This flow is essential for a healthy body; if the flow is blocked or hindered by any other factor, it leads to diseases, major and minor health problems. When Kundalini is activated and rises through the chakras, our awareness and understanding grows. And precisely this is what The Guru does. The Guru becomes instrumental in awakening the Kundalini for traveling through Seven Chakras (Chakra Bhedan). There are many ways The Guru initiate the shishya into illumination, salvation, or emancipation. The well-known being by touching the head of disciple. However, Ramakrishna Paramhans touched Swami Vivekanand by feet or Lord Shrikrishna gave Vishwaroop Darshan to Arjuna. The Guru can simply look deep into the eyes of shishya and thereby transfer the whole knowledge into shishya. Whatever may be the way, the entry point is Bhrumadhya (Centre of Both Eyebrows), the reason being there behind is the centre of Sahastrar Chakra, where Shiv and Shakti meet traveling though all chakras, starting from Mooladhar Chakra. In this connection, let us look at some western concepts. Physiological Psychology. It is also called as Biological Psychology, Biological Psychology, Biopsychology, Neuropsychology, Psychobiology and Psychophysiology. One of the main results of human evolution is that we have become a species, in which behaviour is strongly influenced by learning. Another way of looking at the biological and evolutionary basis of human behaviour is to consider what the brain and nervous system make possible. Processes within the cerebral cortex of the human brain gives us the capacity to communicate with symbols. Thinking, perceiving, remembering, emotionality, motivation and it seems likely, our self-consciousness, are all based on biological activities within our brain. The human brain is estimated to contain at least 150 billion nerve cells, called neurons, each of which is connected to many others, making the number of connections immense. The connections between nerve cells are called synapses. The information is passed from one neuron to another by chemicals known as neurotransmitters. The different types of neurotransmitters, likes, Acetylcholine, Dopamine, Epinephrine, Serotonin, Endorphins, Vasopressin and Oxytocin. These neurotransmitters are in the nervous system, of which a main organ is of course, spine. About forty percent of the human cerebral cortex is in the frontal lobes. The Cerebral Cortex (Frontal Lobe) and Corpus Callosum and Spinal Nuclei are just around the centre of Sahasrar Chakra. Naturally, when The Guru touches the forehead or little bit upper part of it, he actually touches the Cerebral Cortex and Corpus Callosum, and Spinal Nuclei, which activates, rather awakens the Sahasrar Chakra, and thereby the purest nectar lying there flushes down through all chakras re-energised and transcending the unprecedented energy with a lightning speed. And what it does in this process, it sends waves of energy starting from the brain, to destroy the erratic ‘Id’’ in the memory centre. The ‘Id’ is most primitive part, which is storehouse of biologically based urges; the urge to eat, drink, eliminate, and especially to be sexually stimulated. The sexual energy that underlies these urges is called the libido. The ‘Id’ operates according to what Sigmund Freud called as pleasure principle. This can be well equated with ‘Tamas’, speciality of which is to satisfy its fundamental urges immediately and reflexively as they arose, without regard to any constraints of realities of life, or moral or ethical values. ‘Tamas’ actually means ‘Darkness’, the undesirable by any means. However, the ‘Rajas’ role is played by ‘Ego’, which halters and manages the ‘Id’. Ego prescribes the delaying the urge of immediate pleasure. This ensure an individual working for his living, getting along with people and adjusting to societal norms. And of course, this creates a tension between insistent urges of the ‘id’ and the constraints of reality helps the ‘ego’ develop more and more sophisticated think skills. The ongoing tussle and conflict between ‘id’ and ‘ego’ is moderated, managed and controlled by the ‘Super Ego’. Which can be corelated with ‘Sattvic’. ‘Super Ego’ is developed over a period, by learning, parental orientation, teaching, and sermons given by teacher, religious teachers etc. Therefore, when The Guru wishes to bless his shishya, he puts his hand on the head of disciple and orders his inner self to pull the divine energy within him and channelize to disciple; and when the flow starts it electrifies the disciples, and first to cleanse his obstructing ‘tamasic accumulations or deposits’ in ‘id’s area or domain. Then, down the line, on second priority, it reshapes the ‘ego domain’, a ‘Rajasic’ gathering of piled up concepts ideas and thought. Once it is over, the final destiny is to disconnect the ‘Super Ego or Sattvic Domain’ for permanently from Ego and Id. This process takes place in the shishya with unimaginable speed. In fact, this is a process rejuvenate the disciple, who can be well described as mentioned in Chapter-12, Shloka-13 & 14 of Bhagwat Geeta,
“अद्वेष्टासर्वभुतानां मैत्र: करुण एव च | निर्ममो निरहंकार: समदु:खसुख: क्षमी ||१३|| संतुष्ट सततं योगी यतात्मा दृढनिश्चय: | मययर्पितमनोबुर्धियो मद्भक्त: स मे प्रिय: ||१४|| He who does not have jealousy for anybody and who becomes friend of everybody, who is egoless and who does not assume himself as an ultimate. One who, accepts happiness and sorrow in the same way. One who is kind, satisfied always, self-controlled, and who is totally devoted to God, fully and completely, and one who is entirely immersed in bhakti (devotion) is liked by God.
In Mundak Upanishad, Chapter-I, Section-2, Shloka-13, it says,
“तस्मै सा विद्वान उपासन्या, सम्यक प्रसनता चित्तया समानवितया |
येनाक्ष्ररम पुरुषाम वेदा सत्त्यम प्रोवका तम तत्तवतो ब्रह्म विद्याम ||१३||
Unto him, who has approached in due form, whose mind is tranquil and who has attained peace, let the Enlightened Guru (teacher) teach in his very truth that knowledge about Brahman by which one knows the Imperishable person, the truth. This is interpreted by Lord Buddha as, “The Brahman whose self has been cleansed of sins, who is free from arrogance, whose nature is not stained by passions, who is self-controlled, wo has studied the Vedanta and lived a chaste life is indeed the man who can expound the doctrine of Brahman.”
In the same Mundak Upanishad, Chapter-II, Section-2, Shloka-2, the reality of Him is very nicely depicted as under:
“यद अरसिमद यद अनुभ्यो नू का, यस्मिन लोका निहिता लोकिनास का | तद ईतद अक्षरम ब्रह्म सा प्रनसतद यू वन मनाह, तद ईतत सत्यम, तद अमृतम वेदव्याम सौम्या विद्धी ||२||
What is luminous, what is subtler than the subtle, in which are centred all the worlds and those that dwell in them, that is the imperishable Brahman. That is life, that is speech and mind. That is true, that is immortal, O Beloved, that is to be known, know (that).
On this Guru Purnima, let The Guru we have, become happy with us, and bless us with his purest ultimate kindness, hold us, lead us to experience the spiritual meaning of existence. Let Him make us realise that we may not know Brahma but can at least realise Him; there lies the strength of conviction that comes from each one’s personal experience. Upanishads aver that, through our joy we know the reality that is infinite, for test by which reality is apprehended is joy. Hence, in the Upanishads Satyam and Anandam are one. This really harmonise the life. The self of mine that limits my truth within myself confines me to a narrow idea of my own personality. When through some great experience, I transcend this boundary, I find Joy. Disappearance of self brings me into touch with a great positive truth, whose nature is infinitude or limitless. My love makes me understand that I gain a great truth, when I realize myself in others, and therefore, I am glad. This is very nicely mentioned in Ishopnishad,
“यास्त्यु सर्वांनी भुतानी, आत्मन्य इव्हनुपस्यती | सर्वभुतेशू कत्मानम ततो ना विजूगुपसते”
He who sees all creatures in himself, and himself in all creatures, no longer remains concealed.
I pray Guru to illuminate our ‘self’ with the light of love, so the negative aspect of our separateness with others loses its finally. Our relationship with others is no longer that of competition and conflict but becomes that of empathy, cooperation, and convergence. Let us all accept that the inner immortal self and the great cosmic power are one and the same Brahman and it is the Atman. The one supreme power through which all things have been brought into existence is one with the innermost self in each man’s heart. This Guru Purnima will surely illuminate our lives with divine realisation, and we immerse in searching for Essence of Life through our Gurus.
01] Vivekchudamani: Aadi Shankaracharya, Published by Bhartiya Vidya Bhavan, Mumbai, Edition-1999
02] Indian Psychology: Patanjali Yoga sutra, by Dr. Krushanji Keshav Kolhatkar, Published by Aditya Pratishthan, Pune, Edition-2007
03] The Principal Upanishads: by Dr. S Radhakrishnan, Published by HarperCollins Publishers India, Eighth Impression-2000
04] Bhagwat Geeta-Jashi Aahe Tashi by Shri Shrimad A.C. Bhaktivedant, Published by Bhaktivedant Book Trust, 24th Printing, March 2014
05] Introduction to Psychology, by Clifford T. Morgan, Richard A. King, John R. Weisz & John Schopler, Published by TATA McGraw Hill Publishing Company Limited, Edition 1993
06] Taittiriya Upanishad Translated by Swami Gambhirananda, Published by Adwait Ashram, Kolkata, Fourth Impression-June 1998
07] The Science of Self Realization: by His Divine Grace A.C. Bhaktivedant Swami Prabhupada, Published by Bhaktivedant Book Trust, Mumbai, Last Printing-2008
08] Guru; Metaphors form a Psychotherapist: By Sheldon B. Kopp, Published by Science & Behaviour Books, Palo Alto, California, Edition-1971
09] Hindu-Beliefs & Rituals: By Dr Puneet Chawala, Published by Times Groups Books, Edition-2009
10] Sikh Gurus-Their Lives & Teachings: By K. S. Duggal, Published by UBS Publishers’ Distributors Ltd., London
11] The Dhammapada: The Buddhas Path of Wisdom: Translated by Buddharakkhita Thera, Published by Buddhist Publication Society, Kandy, Sri Lanka
12] Narad Bhakti Sutras: by Swami Sivananda, Published by The Divine Life Society, Sivanandanagar, Edition-1998
13] Bhagwan Buddha: Published by Ramakrishna Math, Nagpur, 15th Reprinting 2015
14] Soundarya Lahari: Translated by Prof. H.B. Bhide, Published by Shree Gajanan Book Depot, Pune, Edition-1994
About me: A student of Mythology, Philosophy and Spirituality.
Mukund Bhalerao : Meet Me: firstname.lastname@example.org